Between 2015 and 2020, Brazil misplaced at the least 764 public libraries, in keeping with knowledge from the Nationwide System of Public Libraries (SNBP), managed by the Ministry of Tourism’s Particular Secretariat for Tradition.
In 2015, the database had 6,057 public libraries in Brazil, the quantity dropped to five,293 in 2020, the latest knowledge accessible on the SNBP web site.
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The decline within the variety of libraries for skilled librarians reveals the neglect of public authorities with probably the most weak inhabitants who don’t have entry to bookshops.
In addition they warn that the variety of closed libraries could possibly be even increased, as a result of present fragility of the Nationwide System of Public Libraries after the demise of the Ministry of Tradition and the dearth of efficient management by the state methods whose knowledge feed the nationwide system.
Public libraries are libraries managed by municipalities, states, a federal district, or the federal authorities that serve all audiences. They’re thought-about cultural amenities and due to this fact fall beneath the general public coverage purview of the federal authorities — beforehand beneath the Ministry of Tradition and now, after the demise of the portfolio, beneath the Particular Secretariat for Tradition.
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This account doesn’t embrace faculty and college libraries, whose goal group is college students, academics and workers of instructional establishments.
The Particular Secretariat for Tradition of the Ministry of Tourism was sought by BBC Information Brasil and didn’t reply the query of what explains the closure of a whole lot of public libraries in recent times, nor what’s the coverage of the federal government of Jair Bolsonaro (PL) for libraries.
The Nationwide Cultural Plan, a set of aims for the sector legitimate since 2010, whose validity has been prolonged by Bolsonaro till 2024, has as considered one of its aims “to make sure the implementation and upkeep of libraries in all Brazilian municipalities”.
The lack of greater than 700 libraries in recent times has pushed the nation additional and additional away from this aim.
Public libraries in Brazil
SP and MG had been those most libraries had been closing
Of the 764 public libraries closed over 5 years, 698 (or 91% of the whole) had been situated within the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, most of them municipal libraries.
São Paulo had 842 public libraries in 2015, in keeping with the SNBP, the quantity dropped to 304 in 2020, with a lack of 538 items in 5 years. The quantity represents 70% of all closed libraries within the nation throughout that interval.
SP Leituras, the social group presently chargeable for the administration of the State System of Public Libraries of São Paulo (SisEB), confirmed that the numbers registered within the nationwide system are appropriate and supplied them to SisEB, however contemplating that they might be intermediaries knowledge and never the official re-registration carried out on the finish of every 12 months.
In line with the group, a part of the decline within the variety of libraries is defined by the pandemic, which led to the momentary or everlasting closure of a number of items.
When requested concerning the causes for the closure since 2015, earlier than the pandemic, SP Readings despatched an inquiry to the Minister of Tradition and Artistic Economic system of the State of São Paulo.
“The explanation for the fluctuation (or lower) within the variety of establishments is troublesome to guage. We all know that, sadly, many libraries have been closed from 12 months to 12 months, however we can’t say with absolute certainty that these are the ultimate numbers,” he replied to the file. , by e-mail.
São Paulo had 842 public libraries in 2015, falling to 304 in 2020, in keeping with SNBP — Picture: Disclosure/Marília Metropolis Corridor
Minas Gerais had 888 public libraries in 2015, dropping to 728 in 2020, a lack of 160 libraries in 5 years, in keeping with SNBP knowledge.
The State Ministry of Tradition and Tourism of Minas Gerais, in an try and touch upon the lower within the variety of libraries, responded that “the Authorities of Minas is chargeable for the information of the State Registry and in Minas Gerais the variety of public libraries registered within the State Public Libraries, at the moment [12/7] is 752 items of kit”.
Additionally in keeping with the folder, the replace is carried out each 4 years and a brand new registration shall be carried out in December 2022. “Different registrations are the duty of the entities that generate them and it’s as much as the municipalities whether or not they take part or not in them,” the secretary concluded.
The nation’s library closures between 2015 and 2020 reverse the pattern from earlier years.
From 2004 to 2011, in the course of the federal authorities’s Open Books program in collaboration with municipalities, 1,705 new libraries had been created in Brazil and 682 had been modernized, in keeping with info on the SNBP web site.
BBC Information Brasil requested the SNBP for a historic collection of the register of public libraries in operation in Brazil 12 months by 12 months, however acquired no response.
The survey was subsequently carried out by evaluating the information for 2015 accessible on the outdated SNBP web site archived by the Web Archive venture and the information for 2020, presently accessible on the web site of the Ministry of Tourism.
“Ignoring probably the most weak”
Fábio Cordeiro, president of the Federal Library Board (CFB), believes that the closing of libraries in Brazil in recent times may be defined by numerous components.
“Libraries are cultural amenities and through this final interval we had the elimination of the Ministry of Tradition and the undervaluing of those amenities,” says Cordeiro. “Public library closures reveal lack of funding and authorities curiosity.”
He additionally cites the neglect of the low-income inhabitants, which is extra depending on libraries, as a motive.
“There’s a lack of coverage aimed on the most weak a part of the inhabitants, who don’t have entry to bookstores, don’t have the earnings to purchase books. Those that want libraries probably the most are probably the most weak individuals, who mustn’t have such easy accessibility to reservations.”
Guide gross sales in Brazil are falling 12 months by 12 months. In line with a survey carried out by Nielsen BookData for the Brazilian Guide Chamber (CBL) and Nationwide Editors in 2013, the 12 months with the perfect efficiency within the nationwide ebook market up to now decade, gross sales from publishers to bookstores totaled 279.7 million copies. a bundle of books (Snel).
Promoting books to the market
Copies offered, in hundreds of thousands*
*Gross sales from publishers to bookstores, excluding gross sales to authorities
191 million books had been offered final 12 months, down 1% from the 193 million books offered in 2020 and down 32% from 2013.
Additionally in 2021, the typical month-to-month earnings of Brazilians fell to the bottom degree since 2012, in keeping with IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), at R$1,353.
Additionally in keeping with IBGE, the share of Brazilian municipalities with public libraries dropped from 97.7% in 2014 to 87.7% in 2018, in keeping with the latest version of the Municipal Primary Info Survey (Munic), which coated the subject. The share elevated 12 months by 12 months till 2014, when it started to say no.
Cordeiro additionally cites the development of latest applied sciences as an element that has lowered the variety of libraries.
In line with the Studying Portraits survey by Instituto Pró-Livro in 2019, 68% of Brazilians mentioned they by no means went to libraries.
However unit closings additionally appear to have an impact, as 45% of respondents that 12 months mentioned there was no public library of their metropolis or neighborhood, up from 20% who gave the identical reply in 2007.
Adriana Ferrari, Technical Director of the Florestan Fernandes Library of the College of Philosophy, Letters and Humanities on the College of São Paulo (FFLCH-USP) and Vice President of the Brazilian Federation of Library Associations (Febab), believes that there’s a weak point within the knowledge made accessible by the SNBP as a result of there isn’t any efficient assortment of knowledge .
Presently, the gathering in keeping with SNBP is carried out in cooperation with State and district public libraries.
“Some states have more practical management of their state methods, others have extra fragile management. So this bigger decline within the Southeast area could also be as a result of high quality of knowledge assortment,” he says.
“I do not really feel protected assuming it was simply these items  closed libraries. I imagine that this quantity could possibly be even increased, as a result of for years we’ve witnessed the scrapping of the whole system of entry to info, studying, tradition and libraries themselves”, says Ferrari.
“I do not really feel protected assuming that it was these libraries that closed. I imagine this quantity could possibly be even increased,” says Adriana Ferrari, Vice President of Febab — Picture: Publicity/Bauru Metropolis Corridor
The library notes that the Nationwide Cultural Plan was by no means applied. And even after the approval of the Nationwide Coverage of Studying and Writing (PNLE), referred to as the Castilho Legislation (Legislation 13,696/18), authorised by Michel Temer (MDB), with the goal of “universalizing the proper of entry to books, studying, writing, literature and libraries” he didn’t do any progress.
“We have no public coverage in place, we do not have a Ministry of Tradition, which is the division that manages the Nationwide System of Public Libraries. So the system exists, however with an especially fragile construction. That is why we have not progressed, we’re going backwards,” he says.
“The library is not only an area for books and studying, it’s a gateway to infinite potentialities, to open cultural repertoires. They’re areas for assembly, for belonging, in order that they transcend collections,” says Ferrari, who advocates strengthening public coverage to reverse this state of affairs of failures .
Throughout the Guide Biennale held this July in São Paulo, the CFB launched the #SouBibliotecaEscolar marketing campaign to adjust to Legislation No. Non-public faculties within the nation can have libraries with a minimal assortment of 1 title per enrolled scholar.
The deadline for compliance with the legislation expired in 2020 with out assembly the goal.
Febab will quickly launch a platform to map all libraries of every kind (public, faculty, college and group) within the nation. The aim is to have the ability to monitor and assist state methods have extra constant knowledge about these public amenities.